Latin American Independence
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War of Independence

Starting round about 1806, the local creoles wanted the Spanish removed to expand their trade, but it was a tense situation with the risk of a widespread revolt. Inspired by the events of the Haitian revolution, the people of Venezuela were prepared to take on the Spanish.

Venezuela

Declared independence on April 19, 1810, the army led by Domingo Monteverde defeated the Venezuelan army in 1812. Simón Bolívar returned with a stronger army and invaded the country with great force to defeat the Spaniards soon thereafter. But Bolívar suffered several setbacks, after Spanish reinforcements were sent forward and managed to remove him from his home country.

After a long campaign, however, he was able to gain the independent of Venezuela in 1821. By then, he had already taken over Colombia (in 1820), becoming that country's first president. Meanwhile, Ecuador gained its independence in 1822 and finally lived up to the dream that had emerged with the nickname given to its capital, Quito, called the "Luz de America", following the first uprising against the Spaniard, which took place all the way back in 1809w.

Peru

This links to the Peruvian war of independence, as a cluster of battles which first began in 1809 resulted in the independence of the country, thanks to José de San Martín, the military hero of the southern end of the continent. The start of the movement for independence could be dated back to the 1780s, when the indigenous leader, Tupac Amaru II, raised up in arms against the royalists.

The viceroy of Peru had men of his own to combat the army of the Spanish Empire. Once the royalists prevailed, however, the markets reacted favorably, which lead to the Junta de Río de la Plata, a large player in the silver trade, to side with the Spanish cause. .Despite the royalist tendencies of the oligarchy in Lima, however, successful rebellions were staged in Tacná in 1811 and in Cusco in 1814, triggering the political activism that eventually led to the fall of the viceroyalty.

Victory could be sensed once the Chilean navy was established with the help of Lord Thomas Cochrane in 1820. General San Martín had already stilted the progress of the royalists' campaign with his victory in the battle of Maipú, and from that point forward a land-and-sea forward advance resulted, which culminated in the entrance of the liberating armies into Lima on July 28, 1821.