Inca History
Language Resources

The Origins

The origins of the Inca empire begin with the story of Manco Capac, who is known to have carried a golden staff. He was considered a warlord and the staff he possessed emerged from the ground where the Temple of the Sun was to be constructed, though there are several accounts on this story, adding a certain amount of mystery to his character.

His leadership led the Killke Culture around the 12th century A.D., erecting the city of Cusco. The ninth leader of Sapa Inca was Pachacuti, who conquered southern Peru. Their home city was rebuilt stronger and another interesting construction was added, the Machu Picchu – a breathtaking sight that may have been created as an estate for Pachacuti. Instead of battling everyone, Pachacuti would often send out spies that would give out reports about neighboring cities. From there, offerings would be made and gifts sent to those he wanted to join the Inca empire.With the offers of wealth, many agreed to his proposals.

Arrival of the Spaniards

Pachacuti's son was in charge of the army from 1463 and managed to defeat their only serious rival "The Kingdom of Chimor," who ruled the northern coast of Peru. His empire went as far as Ecuador and Colombia, then his son went on to expand it into Peru and Bolivia. In the Inca Empire there were several languages and practices, due to territories being taken over. Upon exploration of the Inca region, the Spanish, led by Francisco Pizarro, soon realized its potential and gained approval to conquer it. It was in 1532 that the Spanish returned, only to find that a war was being fought between Huayna Capac's son and his half brother Atahualpa.

The Inca population also struggled with a plague of smallpox, which was said to have been sent by the Gods. Francisco Pizarro overcame the warriors of Puná Island and Hernándo de Soto was sent out to explore parts of the land. There was an agreement set up for a meeting with Atahualpa. He was offered to turn the Inca empire into a Christian faith and several versions have emerged of the following events, but the fact remains that Atahualpa was arrested and his followers were killed. Although he offered a wealthy ransom for his release, he was executed after the riches had been paid..